Radar Simulators Fact Sheet

LFTS Fact Sheet


Radar Environment Simulators
| Live Fire Test Simulator
| Radio Frequency Simulation System | Target Injection Unit

Radar Environment Simulators

For more than 30 years, TSC has been building and successfully delivering excellent Radar Environmental Simulators (RES) to a wide-variety of customers.

TSC’s latest RES technology is PC-based with DSP/FPGA-based signal generation hardware.  This system is designed to generate realistic target, clutter, and jamming signal inputs to a radar under test. The test signals are customized for the specific radar and can be injected as RF, IF, or digitally, depending on customer needs. TSC’s radar simulators are designed to be as capable, but less complex and, therefore, less expensive than competing products. TSC’s system uses a LabVIEW interface for ease of operation.

Radar Evaluation Tool

Pictured above is the Radar Evaluation Tool (RET) developed for the Navy’s SPS-49 radar that includes a PC-based RES. This portable diagnostic tool allows the Navy to monitor and troubleshoot radar performance in a laboratory or field environment. Like a RES, it provides the capability to inject simulated targets and clutter into the radar’s RF receiver; however, it has additional hardware and software that allow it to extract raw and processed data from various points along the SPS-49 processing chain. Data can be collected and stored for post mission analysis.

radar simulators

In addition to injection simulators, TSC has developed X, S, L, & C band free-space radar simulators that provide end-to-end radar system testing.  The repeater, pictured on the right was configured to support the COBRA artillery locating radar developed by the European consortium, EuroArt.  Standing off approximately 100 meters from the radar antenna and without any physical connections to the radar, a linear array of antennas and associated electronics captures the radar’s transmitted pulse, and returns a time and spatially delayed, Doppler-modified pulse to the radar, simulating trajectories for mortar and artillery shells.  TSC’s free space simulators have been successfully used for radar development and testing and have proven to be extremely cost effective as a substitute for a live-fire test during production-line acceptance testing.

For more information please download the Radar Simulators Fact Sheet (PDF)


Live Fire Test Simulator

TSC has developed and demonstrated a Live Fire Test Simulator (LFTS, shown below) for the Lightweight Counter Mortar Radar (LCMR).  The LFTS is installed in an anechoic chamber at Tobyhanna Army Depot.  PM Radars held a ribbon cutting ceremony for this TSC product in May of 2008.  This simulator largely replaces the expensive live fire testing at Yuma Proving Ground. 

TSC has also developed an electronic array (rather than a mechanical slide) for the target elevation simulation of the LFTS.  The electronic array, ruggedized for all weather use, allows economic outdoor testing of the LCMR, both current and future versions.  This testing could take place at Forward Repair Areas, at other depots, or during factory development, testing, or repair activities.


For more information please download the LFTS Fact Sheet (PDF)


Radio Frequency Simulation System

RADIO FREQUENCY SIMULATION SYSTEMTSC is supporting various efforts at the U.S. Army Radio Frequency Simulation System (RFSS) facility. The RFSS is a laboratory used for evaluating and testing guidance and control subsystems of radar-guided anti-radiation missiles and Electronic Counter Measures (ECM). An array of computer-controlled antenna elements with associated feed system and RF generation equipment are used to simulate the electromagnetic environment of a missile in flight, including line-of-sight angles and polarization of simulated radar returns. Efforts that TSC supported for the RFSS include a study to determine the feasibility of testing systems incorporating large aperture phased-array antennas. In the RFSS, these antennas violate the far field assumption that the phase front across the aperture is essentially planar. To support this study, an 8-element linear array was constructed by TSC and used to collect data in the RFSS. In another effort, TSC developed prototype Ka-band up/down converter modules for the Army’s MSS-2 test chamber. Previous tasks involved Systems Engineering, analysis and development of simulations for missiles and seekers to be installed in the RFSS and MSS-2. The first step was to obtain an understanding of the missile and of the intended applications. This task included determining the simulation requirements and the scope of the simulation requirements.


Target Injection Unit

The Target Injection Unit (TIU) is a test instrument used to inject IF point target returns and interference returns into the Sentinel radar and its derivatives. The TIU can simulate up to 224 point targets.  The TIU connects directly to the Sentinel Signal Processor to receive the radar control signals.  It uses these radar control signals to create target and interference returns from digital waveforms stored in memory. Signal processing of the waveform includes range delay, amplitude and phase modulation for Doppler and cross section fluctuation and amplitude scaling for range effects and beam shaping. The IF signal is conditioned to resemble a signal received by the radar and then injected into the radar’s signal data processor. The specifications, block diagram and picture of the TIU are given below.




IF Injection


8 MHz

Range Extent

> 500 km

Range Resolution

4.6875 m


0.01 to 100 m2

RCS Fluctuation

Programmable (SW0, SW1 and Rotary)


Selectable (±915 Hz to ±3.75 MHz)

Target Simulation

Range, Azimuth and Elevation

Number of Targets


Clutter Simulation

30 m cells, 360° in Azimuth

Antenna Simulation

Azimuth, Elevation and Spoil

Receiver Simulation

STC, RGC and Thermal Noise

Fault Simulation

All Wired Fault Signals


Standard 19” Rack Enclosure